Magnesium chloride and Calcium chloride are two common salts whose ions react with the calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydroxide which do the binding in concrete. Another common deicer is Rock salt (halite) which is basically sodium chloride and is much less reactive with concrete. Physical reactions can also cause salt scaling and spalling as the salt changes the freezing point of water on the concrete and a rapid temperature gradient occurs which can break the concrete bonds.
You must have safe walking surfaces and concrete can be repaired more easily than broken bones, but don’t apply too much and spread evenly without piles.
Try to use rock salt on concrete if you can. Asphalt does not have the same issues with salts. A blend of salt and sand is a great way to get the results with less salt.